5 Point on PPF vs Mutual Fund Which is Better

PPF vs mutual fund

Indians love safe investment options(PPF vs Mutual Fund). According to us, Safe investment is one that offers a fixed return in a fixed time. 

We believe so much in this, that we often forget what a safe investment option actually is and apart from these two parameters the other parameters to evaluate investment options.

PPF vs mutual fund
PPF vs mutual fund

PPF vs Mutual Fund Which is Better

Can PPF beat Mutual fund? to know the answer let’s begin the face off. Let’s evaluate both the options on para meter no.1 


PPF offers a fixed interest rate. This usually hovers around 8%-9%. In the last 50 years, It has touched 12% high and gone down to as low as 4%. 

Investing in equity mutual funds for a long duration can get you better returns than any other option. In the long term, Equity Mutual Funds can easily offer 10%-12% returns. 

These kinds of returns are difficult to get in any other investment option. So I will award 4.5 to mutual funds and 2.5 to PPF. 


Now let’s talk about the option through which the investment can be redeemed at the time of emergencies. During the financial emergencies, the money can’t be withdrawn from the PPF account. 

PPF has a lock-in of 15 years. Once invested, the investor will have to complete the 15-year term. There are a few exemptions. After 7 years for selective reasons like buying a house or medical emergency, the money can be withdrawn. But not the entire amount. 

Money can be withdrawn easily from a mutual fund account. With just a few formalities, the amount is credited to your account in 3-4 days. 

The withdrawal process is also very simple. This can be completed from the comfort of your home. With PPF you save tax with a lock-in of 15years whereas with ELSS you can save tax with a lock-in of just 3 years. 

In terms of liquidity, ELSS is an amazing option. Here I will give 4 marks to Mutual Fund and 2 to PPF. 

Also Read : How to Select a mutual Fund?

Tax On Return

Now let’s see how tax effects return in both the options. Let’s understand how returns are taxed in both these two. Because we will get to know about the real returns after we calculate the returns after tax. 

When it comes to tax, you get tax benefits under sec 80C on investment in PPF. This comes under the category of EEE. 

It means that from investment to maturity amount, no tax is levied. You can save tax by investing in equity-linked saving schemes mutual funds. 

In long term equity mutual funds, a 10% LTCG tax is levied.year, on the profit exceeding 1 lakh, in a financial. 

This 10% is levied on the profit that exceeds1 lakh. Meaning, profit up to 1 lakh is tax-free. PPF has left behind Mutual funds in tax benefits. I will award PPF 4 and Mutual funds 3. 


The biggest test of an investment option is its ability to beat inflation. Let’s see which is the better of the two here If we talk about retail inflation then PPF can beat that because of its high interest rates. 

But, when we break inflation into sectors,then we see a different picture. The biggest example here is education inflation which is in double digits. 

PPF might not be able to accumulate sufficient wealth required for the higher education of children and retirement planning. In the long term, the equity mutual funds can give as high as 12% returns. 

It means the possibility of earning a higher return is more with mutual funds than PPF. It means mutual funds can beat inflation better. Here, I will award 3 to PPF and 4 to MF.

Also Read : What is PPF Account and Its benefits?


The next point I would like to talk about is that RISK PPF doesn’t involve any risk. You get a fixed return in this. The amount invested is locked in for a fixed time period. 

At the time of maturity, the amount is returned with the interest. In Equity mutual funds, the risk reduces substantially in the long term. 

But in the short term, there is risk involved. But just like PPF is a long term product, the money is invested for 15 years, in the long term, the risk is almost negligible in equity mutual funds. 

The possibility of getting double-digit returns is also high. Looking at the risk profile of both,i will give 4 marks to PPF and 4 to Mutual funds Mutual funds have defeated PPF. Mutual funds option is the winner of all the rounds.

How to Increase CIBIL Score?

how to increase cibil score

How to increase CIBIL Score Made Easy. In this article, I am going to help you understand what a credit score is and how it’s calculated, show you how to improve your credit score and keep it high, AND I’m going to give you THREE tricks that can quickly boost your credit score. 

What is Credit Score?

So, first of all, your credit score is basically a number that tells banks or other institutions how good you are at paying your bills and how likely you are to pay back a loan (on time).

CIBIL credit scores range from 300 to 900,the higher the better. Having a good credit score enables you to buy expensive things like a house or a car or something for your business, and pay for it gradually. 

It enables you to get the best available credit cards, which will pay you to use them. I make almost $1,000 a year just by using credit cards for all my purchases. 

A good credit score also will help you to get lower interest rates when borrowing, and it can even lower the cost of your insurance. 

Also Read : How to Buy Health Insurance?

What is The Minimum CIBIL score to get a Loan?

Generally, you need a score of at least 760 to get the best possible interest rates on a loan. That interest rate can make a big difference in what kind of home you can buy. 

Suppose you can only afford to pay $1200/mo after a 20% down payment. If you increased your credit score from 630 to 760, you would be able to buy a house costing $50,000 more and still have the same monthly payments. 

However, if your credit score is less than 500, you won’t be able to get any loan. 

how to increase cibil score
how to increase cibil score

How CIBIL Score is Calculated?

The first step to improve your credit score is to understand how it is calculated. There are four main factors that can influence it: 

The first and most important factor is whether or not you pay your bills on time. This accounts for 35% of your credit score. There are no ways around this one. 

You simply have to pay all your bills on time,and the easiest way to do this is to set up automatic payments for all your bills. 

If, however, you have an overdue bill or derogatory mark on your account, pay the most recent ones off first. 

Older derogatory marks do not hurt your score as much as recent derogatory marks. Furthermore, don’t just pay an overdue bill by mailing a check; pick up your phone and call the company. Explain why you missed the deadline. Use your nice guy voice. 

Ask them to please remove it from your credit report and remove any late fees. Offer to pay the full amount due. Remember, they just want you to pay your bills,and they have the ability to remove any penalties. 

Okay, before we go any further, have you ever seen your own credit report? Not just your score, but the full report. You need to read your credit report so that you can figure out what is hurting your credit score. 

Maybe there’s a bill you forgot about,maybe there’s a mistake, or maybe someone stole your identity. 

You won’t know unless you read your credit report, which you should be able to get for free from any of the three major credit bureaus,Experian, TransUnion, or Equifax. 

All of them will try to get you to sign up for some paid service, but you don’t need that. Just get the free credit report. I personally use Experian, but the others should work fine too. 

After you read the credit report, what do you do if you find out that there is a mistake or possibly fraud? Or, what do you do if your debt has already gone to a collection agency? 

As far as your credit report goes, I suggest the same response, which is my first trick. Send a 609 letter to the credit bureaus. 

Write something like the following: I’m exercising my right under the Fair CreditReporting Act, Section 609. 

Please send me the original sources of information reported including, but not limited to, the original contract with my signature for the following account(s): (here you should list the account names and numbers) If you can’t provide me with this information,please remove the account(s) immediately. 

Be sure to sign the letter, and write your name, address, phone number, date of birth, and social security number. This should help to remove any mistakes on your credit report. In addition, collection agencies often do not have the original documents, which are required by law. 

This won’t stop the collection agencies from bothering you, but it could remove them from your credit report and help your credit score. 

Keep in mind that this won’t work if the collection agency has the original documents. The second factor that determines your CIBIL score is the amount of credit you are currently using, which accounts for 30% of your credit score. 

This is simply a ratio of the amount you have borrowed using your credit cards divided by your total credit limit. 

Ideally, this should be less than 10%, orat the very least less than 30%. Anything more than that will hurt your credit score. 

This can be improved two ways: decreasing the amount you owe on your credit card accounts or increasing your total credit limit. 

So, if you can, every month you should autopay your entire statement balance for every account you have. 

Unless you are experiencing some financial crisis at the moment, it is ludicrous to EVER carry a balance on a credit card. 

Carrying a balance hurts your credit score and costs a lot in interest. In addition, there is a little trick thatcan help improve your credit score even more. 

Pay your account balance BEFORE your statement is generated. This will bring your credit usage down to nearly 0% and give your FICO score an extra boost. 

Alternatively, you can increase your total credit limit by getting more credit cards with no annual fees. This will hurt your credit score a little at first, but after about a year it will help your long term credit score. 

At the very least, never cancel a credit card unless it has an annual fee. Even if you don’t use it at all, it helps your credit score by boosting your total credit limit. 

Lastly, and perhaps the easiest thing that you can do today to improve your credit score is to request a credit limit increase for all your credit cards. 

You can probably do this online, although it might work better to ask over the phone. The third factor that determines your CIBIL score is the length of your credit history, which accounts for 25% of your score. 

Generally, this is going to take years to improve. It’s good to start by getting credit cards as young as you can responsibly use them. 

Also, keep in mind that any hard credit inquiry will hurt your credit score for a year. This includes applying for a credit card or loan, so try to spread out credit card and loan applications. 

There is actually one way to quickly build credit history without waiting, and that is my third trick. Find a relative or friend with really good and long credit history. 

And ask them to add you as an authorized user on one or more of their old credit card accounts. Make sure they have never missed a payment and they have low utilization. 

You do need to use your social security number,but they do not need to give you a credit card. The beauty of this trick is that you will adopt some of their good credit, but they cannot be hurt by your bad credit. 

This is NOT cosigning. As long as they don’t give you a card, there is no risk for them at all. The fourth and last factor that determines your FICO score is the variety of credit you have used, which only counts for 10% of your credit score. 

So, you can improve your long term credit score by having a variety of accounts. In addition to credit cards, this can be helped by having store cards, bank cards, student loans, car loans, mortgages, and personal loans. 

The more accounts you have the better, anda perfect score can only be achieved by maintaining more than 20 accounts. However, this has only a small effect on your credit score, and it is always a bad idea to get a high-interest loan. 

All right, thanks for reading, and good luck with your credit score! Please share your own experience below in the comment section.

Section 80c : 10 Best Deduction Under Section 80c

What Is Section 80c And Deductions under 80c

A lot of times, people look at where their colleagues and friends have invested to save tax(Section 80c) and just buy the same things without thinking if they are right for them. 

What Is Section 80c And Deductions under 80c
What Is Section 80c And Deductions under 80c

This isn’t the right approach. After all, you are putting your hard-earned money. You should know all the options available to you and then make an informed decision and that’s what we will talk about in this article.

Let’s begin. A big component of tax savings available to every taxpayer is the provisions under Section 80C. In this article, I will also discuss what is section 80c? and 10 Best Deduction Under Section 80c.

What is Section 80c?

Let us look at what is Section 80c of the Income Tax Act 1961. According to the tax laws, you can claim a deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh from your total income under section 80C. 

Basically, you can reduce up to Rs 1.5 lakh from your total taxable income by saving and investing money in the products that are listed under Section 80C towards tax benefits. 

This benefit under Section 80C can be availed by individual taxpayers and Hindu Undivided Family (HUF). Having understood this far, let us dig deeper as to how exactly you could benefit from Section 80C and utilise the Rs 1.5 lakh that you can. 

As mentioned before, you need to deploy this sum into products that are listed as tax savers under Section 80C and they are many such products. 

Various Deduction Under Section 80c

Actually, there are over a dozen avenues through which taxpayers could use to exhaust their tax savings under Section 80C. Each of these products is unique, though they all have a common objective which is to provide tax savings on the monies that flows into them each financial year. Let us understand the basic features of each one of them. 

Public Provident Fund (PPF)

The Public Provident Fund (PPF) is one of the oldest tax saving instruments in the country which was introduced in 1968. 

It is a long-term retirement savings option,which functions like a savings-cum-tax savings medium. The PPF has a minimum tenure of 15 years, which can be extended in blocks of 5 years as per your wish. 

The amount deposited during a financial year in the account can be claimed under Section 80C deductions within the Rs 1.5 lakh limit. The current interest rate on PPF is 7.9%. 

There is another advantage with PPF; the interest rate is guaranteed and the gains are tax free on redemption after maturity. 

Also Read : What is PPF and Its Various Benefits

Employee Provident Fund (EPF)

Employee Provident Fund (EPF)Your contributions in EPF are eligible for tax deduction of up to Rs 1.5 lakh under Section 80C and the money that you accumulate in your EPF earns a guaranteed interest which is notified at the beginning of the financial year. 

To provide flexibility to taxpayers, they can withdraw from the account after the mandatory specified period of 5 years. Like PPF, the gains from EPF are also tax free. 

The current interest rate on EPF is 8.65%. National Saving Certificate (NSC)The NSC is a guaranteed income investment scheme that you can open at any post office. 

The tenure of this scheme is fixed at 5 years and the interest rate is guaranteed in them. The current interest rate on NSC is 8%. However, the gains from the NSC returns are taxable as they are added to your income. 

Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana (SSY)

Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana (SSY)This scheme is designed to provide a bright future for the girl child. The SSY account can be opened at the post office and designated banks for a girl child. 

The account can be opened for the girl child before she turns 10 years old. The interest offered on this account is guaranteed and is currently 8.4%. 

Like the PPF, the interest earned in this account is tax free. 5-year Tax Saving Fixed DepositThese are bank deposits for a 5-year term in which the savings up to Rs 1.5 lakh in a financial year qualify for tax deduction under Section 80C. 

The current prevailing interest rate in such deposits is in the 6.85-7.5% range. However, like the NSC, gains from this deposit are taxable as they are added to your income.

Senior Citizens Savings Scheme (SCSS)

Senior Citizens Savings Scheme (SCSS)To address the tax savings needs of senior citizens, the SCSS was introduced by the government for those who are 60 years old or more. 

The deposit matures after 5 years from the date of account opening but can be extended once by an additional 3 years. In this scheme the returns are guaranteed and currently 8.6%. 

Equity Linked Saving Scheme (ELSS)

Equity Linked Saving Scheme (ELSS)The ELSS is an equity mutual fund category in which investments qualify for tax deductions under Section 80C up to the Rs 1.5 lakh limit in a financial year. 

The ELSS is a market-linked product and doesn’t guarantee any returns and comes with a three year lock-in, which is the shortest among the tax savings options under Section 80C.

As the ELSS is a mutual fund, there is convenience to start an SIP with ELSS to make tax savings a regular exercise with just Rs 12,500 SIPeach month.

National Pension System (NPS)

National Pension System (NPS)The NPS is a voluntary retirement scheme through which you can create a retirement corpus or your old age pension and available to all Indian citizens (resident or non-resident)between 18 and 65 years old. 

The investments under Tier I of the NPS qualify for tax deductions under Section 80C up to the Rs 1.5 lakh limit in a financial year. There is an added advantage of saving additional tax with the NPS. 

NPS subscribers can claim an additional deduction for investment up to Rs 50,000 in a financial year under Section 80CCD (1B) over and above the Rs 1.5 lakh deduction under Section 80C. The gains from NPS investments as well as the final corpus are full tax free. 

Life Insurance Premium, pension plans and ULIPs

You can claim premiums paid for life insurances for self, children or your spouse under Section 80C. 

The gains from these savings and investments are tax free under Section 10(10)D if the premium is not more than 10% of the sum assured or the sum assured is at least 10 times the premium. 

However, if the sum assured is less than 10times the premium, you can claim a deduction under Section 80C only up to 10% of the sum assured. 

Repayment of Home Loan 

There is something for home buyers servicing a home loan. If you are repaying the principal component of a home loan, then that amount is eligible for deduction under Section 80C. 

This tax exemption also includes payments made towards stamp duty and registration.

Tuition Fees Deduction Under Section 80c

If you are a parent, you can claim fees paid for admission of your child in schools, colleges or universities in India for full-time courses only. 

The tax exemption under Section 80C can be claimed for up to two children for that particular financial year. 

Infrastructure Bonds

Infrastructure bonds Within the Section 80C, sub Section 80CCF is a deduction available for taxpayers who prefer to invest in the government approved bonds. 

The deduction limit is up to Rs 20,000 per year and applicable on long-term bonds having a minimum tenure of 10 years with a lock-in period of 5 years. 

While the interest rate is fixed with these bonds, the gains on maturity are taxable. Having seen how each of the products in which savings and investments qualify for tax deductions under Section 80C, you can decide on those that meet your needs. 

You should also know that to claim the tax deductions under Section 80C, you need to produce proof of savings and investments inthe products that you choose. 

The tax savings options within Section 80C is exhaustive and overwhelming that many forget how much income tax they actually save. 


For instance, at the highest 30% tax bracket,a taxpayer who exhausts the entire Rs 1.5 lakh deduction under Section 80C can save Rs 46,800 including 4 per cent cess. 

In the 20% tax slab, the savings works toRs 31,200 and at 5% tax slab it is Rs 7,800. As we said in the beginning, it is our belief that tax savings should be done with some planning and thinking. 

You should not get into the herd mentality of saving tax in an instrument just because your father does it or a friend thinks it is good. 

I mean, just because you can save tax on insurance policy, doesn’t mean you take a policy to save tax. Think if you need insurance cover and take an adequate cover with tax savings as an additional benefit. 

Another aspect that you should be watchful of is the tax savings on home loan repayment. Just because there is a tax saving window,do not go into taking a home loan to purchase a house. 

But, when you do buy a house on a loan, use the available tax benefits under Section 80C towards loan repayment. We think there are essentially three must have tax saving products that every taxpayer should consider. 

You need life insurance, especially a term life policy to make sure your dependents live comfortably in your absence. A term insurance policy provides pure life cover which is very affordable compared to other life insurance covers. 

For instance, a 30-year old healthy male will need to pay about Rs 20,000 annually for a Rs 1 crore term insurance plan. At less than Rs 2,000 a month not only do you get peace of mind, you also get the tax benefit under Section 80C. 

The second product which will work for you and help you to build a retirement corpus is the National Pension System (NPS). Retirement is a financial goal that everyone one needs to plan for. 

The NPS with its long term lock-in, choice of investment options and growth possibility is a powerful tax saving cum retirement planning tool. 

Closing Thoughts

Lastly, there is scope to create wealth and save income tax with investments in ELSS. The mutual fund structure of ELSS lets you plan and automate your investment in them for the whole year through SIPs (systematic investment plan). 

You could use the ELSS as the first step towards wealth creation along with the available tax deduction that you could claim under Section 80C. 

To recap; Section 80C of the income tax allows individual taxpayers and HUF to claim a deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh from the total income by saving and investing money in the products that are listed under Section 80C towards tax benefits. 

And, the best way to leverage tax savings under Section 80C is to plan for it and align it smartly to your financial needs and goals. Doing so, will help you save tax and also realise your financial goals.

Top 7 Best ELSS Funds Review in India

best elss fund

ELSS mutual funds are a very good option to save tax. I am sure that you must have heard about it many times. And this is true because by investing in these funds, you not only save tax but also create wealth for yourself.

But with 38 options to pick from, deciding which is best ELSS fund to invest in, can be quite confusing.

Not anymore. In Credit Gyani, we believe that we should do all the necessary work on your behalf. And in this article, we will tell you about 7 best ELSS funds, in which you can invest.

best elss fund
best elss fund

What is ELSS Funds?

So let’s get started If you have no idea about what are ELSS funds, here is a quick review. ELSS funds are a type of equity mutual fund wherein by investing in it, you can claim a deduction of up to 1.5 lakh in a year under section 80c.

ELSS funds are multi cap funds which means they can invest without any hindrance despite the company’s size and sector.

There are two benefits of this approach –

    1. One is you will get a diversified portfolio which lowers your risk
    2. and second is, you invest in those sectors that are actually advancing India.

How We Shortlisted These 7 Top ELSS Funds

Now that you know what ELSS funds are, let’s talk about how we shortlisted these 7 funds.

The very first thing we did, was to analyse all 38 ELSS funds Then we checked those funds that had at least 3 year history.

With this, 34 funds remained in the list After that, we evaluated the performance of funds under different time frames We also analysed how these funds perform in the falling markets.

Good downside protection i.e. loss control when the market falls, is a hallmark of a good fund.

We dug deeper and evaluated each fund’s performance against its benchmark, just to analyse that for how many times and with what margin it beats its own benchmark.

And lastly we checked the return of every fund in comparison to the ELSS category average.

Before arriving at any final selection we evaluated keenly each and every fund on these parameters.

Also Read : How to Select A Mutual fund?

List of 7 Best ELSS Funds

Are you ready to know which are those 7 funds? They are –

    1. Axis Long Term Equity Fund,
    2. DSPTax Saver Fund,
    3. Invesco Tax Saver Fund,
    4. Kotak Tax Saver Fund,
    5. Canara Robecco Equity TaxSaver Fund,
    6. Mirae Tax Saver Fund
    7. Motilal Oswal Long Term Equity Fund
Top ELSS Funds
Top ELSS Funds

Axis Long Term Equity

This fund was launched in 2009 and now has become one of the biggest fund of the ELSS category.

This fund invests 65-75% of its portfolio into the large caps i.e. in India’s top 100 companies. rest 25-30% in mid-sized companies and remainingportion in small companies.

The return consistency of this fund is its hallmark and in the last 10 years of its history, only for one year it gave less returns in terms of category and benchmark.

However this fund has not witnessed a big correction like 2008 but in 2011 and 2018 when the market was falling; it contained its losses in quite an impressive manner.

If we talk about its return, then for 10 years the average annual return of this fund has been 17.91%.

At the same time the 7-year and 5-year returns are 19.95% and 11.61% respectively.

Invesco Tax Saver

The Invesco Tax Fund was launched in 2006 and it follows the strategy of growth at areasonable rate.

This fund has been navigating beautifully both – the increasing markets and falling markets. So when in 2008, 2011 and 2018 the market fell, the losses of this fund were less than average and benchmark category.

Also in the rising market of 2010 and 2014 it offered more returns than the average and benchmark category.

Since inception, Invesco Tax saver Fund has given 14.01% of average annual returns. And its 7-year returns are 16.24%, which is around 3% more than the average category.

This fund is a great option in long term investment because of its growth at a reasonable rate strategy.

DSP Tax Saver

The DSP Tax Saver Fund was launched in 2007. This fund uses a combination of growth and value investing styles and switches in both according to the market.

Since its launch, DSP Tax Saver Fund has givenan average annual returns of 13.55%, and its 5-year and 7-year returns are 16.10% and 10.61% respectively, which is about 3% higher than the category average.

This fund is one of the most consistent performersin the ELSS category. Hence if you are looking for a reliable optionthen you should consider this.

Kotak Tax Saver

Kotak Tax Saver was launched in 2005 and since inception, it has given an average annualreturns of 11.80%.

This fund follows the flexicap approach whichmeans that it is not biased towards similar sized companies.

It has been increasing its allocation in mid-sizedand small companies in recent times. And today about 45% of money is invested insmall and mid-size companies and the rest is invested in large caps.

When we talk about 7-year returns of thisfund, its 13.99% and 5-year returns are 9.56%.

Mirae Tax Saver Fund

Mirae Tax Saver is a relatively new entrant in the ELSS category. It was launched in 2015.

This fund maintains about 65%-70% allocation in India’s top 100 companies and invests  the rest in mid-sized companies.

Talking about the returns of this fund, we see that since launch it has beaten its benchmark and category returnsby a big margin.

It’s 3-year returns is 14.60% which is 5%higher than the average category. Not only this, during the 2018 market correction,it contained its losses well.

This is pretty impressive but due to its small track record, its performance consistency across market cycles is still not known.

Canara Robeco Equity Tax Saver

This fund was launched in 1993 and it is one of the oldest ELSS Funds.

This fund invests maximum money in India’stop 100 companies. The downside protection capability of this fund is considered to be one of the best.

In the year 2008, 2011 and 2018 during market corrections, this fund fell below category and benchmark.

In 2018 when the overall average returns inthe ELSS category were negative, this fund gave positive returns.

In terms of returns generated since launch,Canara Robeco Equity Tax Saver has delivered an annual average returns of 14.61% and its 7 and 5 year returns are 13.91% and 9.17%  respectively.

Motilal Oswal Long Term Equity

Motilal Oswal Long Term Equity is also a relatively new entrant. It was launched in 2015.

This fund uses the QGLP – Quality, Growth, Longevity, and Price framework for stock selection.

And once the stock is picked, it holds itfor a long period. This fund has performed very well in its shorthistory and its 5-year returns is 13.73% which are the highest returns in the ELSS categoryin this period.

These are the 7 ELSS funds handpicked by us. You have witnessed yourself that all these funds have delivered good returns in the long-term.

However, they all have different approaches. So, if you want to go in for an aggressive strategy, you can pick Kotak Tax Saver Fund.

But if you prefer stability, then DSP Tax Saver Fund and Invesco Tax Saver Fund are good choices.

Don’t forget to share this article with your friends. For any questions write down in the comment section below. 

How To Select a Mutual Fund?

How To Select a Mutual Fund

So after all the research for where to invest your money, you zeroed-in on Mutual Funds.

You are all set to invest. But like many of us, you may be wondering How To Select a Mutual Fund.

How To Select a Mutual Fund
How To Select a Mutual Fund

Today, we are going to help you. So, how should you choose your first fund? The good part about Mutual Funds is that they offer scheme categories that match almost every risk appetite & time horizon.

Categories To Select Mutual Fund

So let us take a look at some of the fund categories that could match your requirements:

Funds for investments up to 1 year

If you are investing for say, 1 week to 1 year, you have to stick to Debt Schemes. And specifically, don’t go beyond these 5 categories –

  • Overnight Funds – when your horizon is for up to 1 week.
  • Liquid Funds – When you are looking to invest for 1 week to 1 month
  • Ultra Short Duration: for 1 to 3 month investment
  • Low Duration Funds: for 3 to 6 month investment and
  • Money Market Funds: for your investment that you can do for 6 months to 1 year

All these Scheme Categories are a far better alternatives for the same duration’s FDs that you would get in a bank.

Funds for 1-2 year investment horizon

For this investment duration too, you should stick to Debt Funds. Short Term Debt Funds can be a good category for this. These funds mostly lend to good companiesfor a period of 1 to 3 years.

If you complete 3 years they tend to deliver much better returns than Bank Fixed Deposits as you would pay far lower effective tax on your returns than what you pay on the interest you receive on FDs.

Funds for 2-3 year investment horizon

From debt funds, you can go for Banking and PSU Debt Funds. These funds lend only to banks and public sector companies, These companies have good credit rating & hence the risk is controlled, even if money is lent for a couple of years or more.

Hybrid Scheme category that suits a 2-3 year horizon is Equity Savings Funds. These funds put around 30-35% in stocks, 30-35%in equity securities that offer arbitrage opportunities, while the remaining is invested in debt.

Equity offers growth potential while debt adds stability. The arbitrage part is more or less risk-free as it buys and sells the stock at the same time to take advantage of different prices of the same stocks in different markets.

Funds for 3-4 year investment duration

ELSS Funds If you can lock-in your money for 3 years, you should go for ELSS funds. These funds have an added advantage of helping you save up to Rs. 46,800 in taxes every year, plus you get the growth potential of equities.

These are hybrid funds that buy stocks at low prices and sell automatically when the prices rise.

These funds keep changing the allocation to stocks & debt to generate optimal return & minimize risk.

Funds for 4-5 year investment duration

Aggressive Hybrid Equity Funds

If you want to control risk, go for Aggressive Hybrid Equity Funds.

They invest 65% -80% of your money into equityand 20%-35% of the money in debt. This is the ideal category for long-term investments for every first-time investor.

Large-Cap funds

Another category for your 4-5 year horizon is Large Cap Equity Mutual Funds.

They invest in the Top 100 companies, some of whom are most loved brands like, HDFC Bank, SBI, Hindustan Unilever or Reliance Industries,etc.

These funds provide relatively stable returns and are not as volatile as other equity fund categories.

Multi cap Funds

A slightly aggressive cousin of Large Cap Mutual Funds, they follow a Diversified Portfolio strategy that gives your money exposure in companies of all sizes, across sectors.

Also Read :

Funds for 5-7 year investment duration

Large and Mid Cap

These funds invest in a combination of India’s biggest and India’s fastest-growing mid-sized companies, giving you a mix of growth and stability.

Mid Cap Funds

These funds invest in mid-sized companies in India. The companies in this space are some of the fastest-growing companies.

For this reason, you can get market-beating returns. However, they can be volatile in the short to medium duration.

Funds for 7+ year investment horizon

Small Cap Funds

These funds invest in the smallest companies in India These companies have the potential to become mid and even large companies in the future and can give outstanding returns in this journey.

However, this space is extremely volatile, so you need to be prepared. Now that you know how to pick your first fund,time to get started on your investment journey.

Don’t forget to share this article with your friends!  

What is Expense Ratio in Mutual Fund?

What is Expense Ratio in Mutual Fund

You must have heard, “Mutual fund Sahi hain.” (Mutual funds are good.) But are they free? When you invest in a mutual fund, you might have thought that how does Mutual Funds charge you.

You don’t pay them separately. So, today, in this article, we will tell you what are expense ratios. How are they deducted? And how do they impact your returns?

What is Expense Ratio in Mutual Fund
What is Expense Ratio in Mutual Fund

What is Expense Ratio in Mutual Fund?

The charges which mutual funds charge to manage your fund are called expense ratios. You don’t need to pay this expense ratio separately.

But they are deducted from your NAV. NAV means net asset value. NAV is published daily.

Now you may be thinking about what is NAV. Just like a share has a price, Mutual Funds have units,which has NAV for example, if you are investing Rs. 10, if NAV of a fund is Rs. 10and if that NAV becomes 15. Then it means that you have earned50%  returns. And this expense ratio is yearly charged on a daily basis.

Why Expense Ratio is Charged?

Now you may be thinking why this expense ratio is charged. To fund or to run any business, they incur some expenses. There are different components of expense ratio:-

    1. Fund Management Expenses
    2. Marketing and Distribution Expenses
    3. Legal and Audit Expenses

Fund Management Expenses

Your fund managers, your researchers,who choose stocks for you, who put them in your mutual fund after doing research, they are paid a fees. These are fund management expenses.

Marketing and Distribution Expenses

All the ads you see,”Mutual fund sahi hain,” You see the hoardings,ads on TV. Expenses are incurred for them.

Legal and Audit Expenses

It includes auditor fees, charges of legal advisors,it includes them all. Because, you have to followall the compliances of SEBI. If you break any regulations, you have to pay extra penaltyor extra charges.

Also Read :

What is the Total expense Ratio?

Hence, you have to pay these expenses. Combining all these,comes the total expense ratio. And this total expense ratio,according to the guidelines of SEBI, can be charged at a maximum of 2.5%.

Now we will tell you how expense ratios are deducted. For simple calculations, let’s assume Mutual Funds gives you no return So let’s assume you have invested Rs 50000 in a mutual fund and expense ratio is 2% So you must be thinking now that Rs 1000 will be deducted.

But it is not like that Your expense ratio is deducted daily from your invested amount So invested amount at Day 1 is Rs 50000 calculating with 2% you will divide it with 365 Day 1 expense ratio comes around Rs 2.73 when you will see your next day invested amount that will be around Rs 49997 So the Day 2 expense ratio will not be calculated at Rs 50000 but at Rs 49997 which comes around Rs 2.73 So continuing in the same manner, On Day 365 the amount will be Rs 2.685 So if you add each day expense ratio the total comes around Rs 990 and not Rs 1000.

So this is a simple example where we have demonstrated how expense ratio will impact your investment if no returns are considered but generally, Mutual Funds gives you some return.

The expense ratio is deducted daily from your invested amount so if you have earned 10% returns then the expense ratio will be deducted on Rs 55000 So you must be thinking Rs 2.7 is very less for you but if you see it from long term perspective it impacts your investments significantly.

Now let’s see with an example, how this expense ratio can impact your investment in the long term of 10-15 years As we have discussed, you have investedRs. 50,000 in a mutual fund.

Let’s consider that you have put themfor 30 years & CAGR is 15% CAGR means compounded annual growth rate. Your return is increasing every yearby 15%.

If you are paying zero expense ratio, with around 15% CAGR,your amount will be around 33 lakh. But if the expense ratio is 2% in 30 years,the amount will be Rs. 18 lakh.

It means that in 30 years, slowly, you have paid Rs. 15 lakh. But if the expense ratio is 0.2%, the amount will be 31 lakh. It means you have paid fees ofonly Rs. 2 lakh in the whole 30 years.

It is normal in mutual funds to charge fees. Whenever you are investing in a fund you should checkwhat is their expense ratio. But it is not right to take decisionsonly on the basis of expense ratio.

But it will give you an ideahow much fees you will be paying. You have to see their past performancethat what was their fees before now what is the fees. And, the expense ratio of the mutual fundcan change.

But whenever they change, Mutual Funds will inform you beforehand that the expense ratio of this fundis increasing or decreasing. There are two types of mutual funds, Regular and Direct. In Direct Mutual Funds,expense ratio is less because you buy these mutual funds directly from AMC.

But if you are buying regular Mutual Fund, distributor charges also add up.Like if you’re buying through a broker, or some advisor or distributor then it is a regular Mutual Fund because it also has their charges.

You might have heard, active mutual fund and passive mutual fund. In active Mutual Fund, fund managers regularly change stocks, they do extra research on them.

Hence, expense ratio of such funds is more. Whereas, you might have seen that in a passive mutual fund they have a set procedure. They have a set criteria.

Hence they do not need to do much research. Therefore they have less expense ratio. I hope, now you have all the information about expense ratio.

If you still have a doubt about anything, comment and let us know If you want knowledge or information about any financial term or investing term, please tell us that through the comment. If you like this article, do share it with your friends and family.

Why I Don’t Use Debit Card and Use Credit Card

I’ve ran a lot of surveys on the internet regarding whether you guys use debit cards, Credit Cards or even cash for your most common purchases and what the results are showing is that you guys typically use your debit cards for purchases and that’s why I’m making writing this article for you.

why i don’t use debit card

So in this article, I’m gonna explain why I never use debit cards to make purchases unless I absolutely have to and why I typically use credit cards for all of my purchases?

Just because it makes moresense but don’t worry if you do use debit cards because I’m not gonna totally diss on them because there are actually pros and cons when it comes to credit cards and debit cards.

But for the most part it just makes more sense to use a credit card if you’re not paying any credit card interest.

Benefits of using Debit Card

I’ll start off talking about the good things about debit cards and then I’ll move into thenegative stuff so that you can see with a little more clarity why I prefer to use credit cards for all of my purchases.

now one of the best reasons for using a debit card is because it’s linked directly to your checking account so what this means is that every single time you make a transaction with your debit card it’s gonna show up instantly on your statement balance so that you know exactly what’s going on inside your checking account right when you actually make a purchase.

another cool thing about debit cards is if you ever need cash back then I would definitely use a debit card because you can do this at grocery stores gas stations all over the place and you can always get cashback and it’s super easy to just take it out get cash right from your checking account.

now on the flip side credit card transactions do post on their accountthe same day but they’re never going to be fully posted for about three dayswhile they pend and so sometimes that can get a little bit confusing and thenif you ever do need cash back from a credit card I would never do thatbecause it’s called a cash advance and you’re actually going to be charged interest every single day you use it which is something that I would not recommend doing and then keep in mind whenever you’re using a debit card thetransactions are actually being deducted from your account which makes a lot moresense from a budgeting point of view.

Because when you’re using a credit card the transactions actually go up on your balance and it can confuse people a lot because you’re not seeing it a direct reflected sense like you do from your debit card in your checking account and seriously if you do carry a credit card balance where you’re paying interest every month then disregard everything I’m about to say because in that context I still want you to use your debit card for everything because it is not worth taking any of this advice if you’re paying interest on your credit card.

Now the way that you can tell if you’re paying interest on your credit card is just check your statement balance and see if you have any line items that say that you’ve paid any interest charges because if you have then that means you are paying interest on it.

Now the other way you can tell is if you just know for yourself that youdon’t pay off your statement balance in full.

The point I’m trying to make is that if you are paying any interest on your credit card then disregard what I’m about to say.

Now these are the reasons why I prefer to use credit cards for all of my purchases versus debit cards.

Benefits of using Credit Card

This is why it’s going to make sense for you guys now the first reason why I use credit cards for all of my purchases isbecause they are way more protected than debit card purchases so if you ever need to reverse a charge it’s a lot easier to do that with a credit card than with a debit card so for example a few years back I was staying in Singapore at a hotel and the problem is is that the hotel actually charged me for two rooms when I only needed one room

So when I actually disputed the charges with them they refused to settle it with me so all I did was I just called up Visa who is the credit card that I used at the hotel and then they helped me get the charges reversed so that I didn’t have to pay for a room that I didn’t book.

Now I’m not saying that debit cards won’t help you in those types of situations but the thing is is that with a credit card it’s always in their best interest to keep you as their customer and they’re always gonna do as much as they possibly can to help you.

Whereas with a debit card you just don’t have as much protection credit cards also give you.

Extended warranties on your purchases and they also protect your purchases against theft and damage which is something that debit cards never do.

they also have all the reward points and signup bonuses too so if you’re going to be spending money anyway then you might as well just get the reward points that you do with a credit card.

Now I have seen a lot of debit cards that actually do have rewards programs but you have to look for them and do a little bit of research to find them but they do exist out there it’s just a easier to find them with credit cards

Because it seems like every single credit card out there has a rewards program because at the end of the day if you’re gonna have to pay your utility bill regardless then you might as well just get reward points for using your credit card.

Because you’re gonna have to pay it anyways and then if you travel internationally credit cards are actually very useful to use because a lot of them aren’t gonna charge you foreign transaction fees and what this means is that if you’re buying stuff outside of the country then they’re not gonna charge you to convert the currency whenever you make a transaction that is very convenient .

Another thing to keep in mind with credit cards is that their websites are extremely robust so if you’re in a budgeting and stuff like that then credit cards are very very good because they obviously have a lot of money to fund their websites and they make them extremely intuitive to figureout your budget and where your spending is.

And all that kind of stuff where as with a lot of debit cards if you’re using a local bank or a small little credit union you’re never gonna have that type of a website and they’re never gonna be as good as what you get from credit cards.

And then the last thing on credit cards is that they actually carry an important role in your credit score which is something that debit cards definitely don’t do but I wish it wasn’t true but it is and it’s just the fact that you do need a credit card in order to help your credit score out in some sense because basically your credit cards control about 30 percent of your credit score through what’s called credit utilization and this all just has to do with how much you’re spending versus what your limits are.

The point is is that credit cards do help your credit score and debit cards don’t and just remember that credit cards don’t charge you a penny and interest unless you’re not paying your statement balance off in full.

So as long as you’re paying off that statement balance you’re never gonna have to pay apenny in interest and you don’t have to be afraid of credit cards.

But if you feel like you’re the type of person that’s not going to be able to control your spending through a credit card then definitely just stick with what works I just want what’s best for you guys.

And in my context I like to use credit cards because they’re better than debit cards in some ways but if you’re not going to be able to control your spending and you’re gonna be spending money on interest then definitely just stick with a debit card.

5 Best Tax Saving Instruments and Options

tax saving instruments

Till I started earning and paying taxes, I used to think that people are unnecessarily tensed about saving taxes. But when I received my first salary and experienced my first tax deduction, I realized that I was wrong. It’s because of a lack of Education about Tax Saving Instruments.

tax saving instruments
tax saving instruments

It is just smart to save tax making the best use of tax saving options provided by the government. A lot of tax saving options as well.

However, the majority of taxpayers invest/save in products defined under the most popular Section 80C by claiming the deduction on them and think they can save this much tax only.

But that is not the case. In this article, I will share 5 tax saving tricks that help you to save more on tax. So let’s get started.

List of Tax Saving Instruments and Tax Saving Options

Additional tax saving with NPS under Section 80CCD

You can claim a tax deduction under Section 80C by contributing Rs. 1.5 lakhs yearly in NPS. Additionally, Apart from that, you can claim a tax deduction under Section 80CCD (1B) by contributing an additional amount of Rs. 50,000in your NPS account.

It means that if someone falls under the 30 percent tax bracket, then the additional tax saving helps them save up to Rs. 15,600 on their income tax. 4 percent education cess is also included in this.

Tax saving by Health Insurance Premiums under Section 80D

In the era of increasing medical cost, health insurance has become very important for everyone. If you don’t have any health insurance cover, then a medical emergency can cause a negative impact on your financial life.

Tax incentives are offered by the government to encourage investment in health insurance by more people. The health insurance premium amount can be used to claim tax deduction under Section 80D.

You can claim tax benefits on the premium paid for a standard health insurance policy, health insurance riders, and top up health cover.

Also Read : How To Buy Best Health Insurance

An added advantage of this section is that you can get tax benefits on preventive health check-up expenses. However, it should be within the section limit.

The limit on tax deduction under Section 80D depends on who is included in the health insurance cover. This limit can be Rs.25,000, Rs.50,000, and Rs.75000 or Rs.1 lakh, depending on the situation of the taxpayer’s family.

If you buy health insurance for yourself and your family excluding your parents, then you can claim a tax deduction of up to Rs. 25,000on the premium paid.

If even a single person in your family is above the age of 60, the limit you can claim is Rs. 50,000. Apart from this, if you buy health insurance for your parents, then there is a limit of Rs. 25,000 for non-senior citizen parents and 50,000 for senior citizens.

This limit is over and above your family limit. Let’s understand the deduction you can claim with an example.

Let’s assume that Anil, who is a 35 year old working professional, buys a health insurance policy. Anil, his spouse and dependent children, are included in this policy.

In this scenario, the limit of tax deduction can be up to Rs. 25,000 in a financial year under Section 80D. This limit includes preventive health check-up as well.

Anil spends Rs.18,000 per annum for his health insurance premium, and he also spends Rs.4,000 per annum for a preventive health check-up.

Tax deduction under Section 80D: Rs.22,000Now Anil felt that his senior citizen parents should also have health insurance. Anil buys health insurance for his parents, and in this case, the limit under section 80D will be Rs. 75,000.

This includes a limit of Rs. 50,000 for the premium paid on the insurance for his parents and remaining Rs. 25,000 on the premium paid for the health insurance policy of himself and his family.

Tax saving on the medical expenditure of a disabled dependent under Section 80DD

A taxpayer can claim a deduction under Section 80DD if he/she takes care of a dependent disabled family member.

This deduction is offered to help you take care of a disabled family member who is dependent on you. Section 80DD defines disabled dependent family members which include wife, children, parents or siblings.

In the case of HUF, any member of HUF can be disabled dependent. To claim the deduction in this section, it is necessary that the disabled dependent has not claimed deduction under section 80U.

The disabilities covered under this sectionare blindness, low vision, loco-motor disability, hearing impairment, mental retardation, mentalillness, autism and cerebral palsy.

You can claim deduction on the following medical expenses: Expenses incurred on medical treatment, nursing, training and rehabilitation of the disabled dependent.

The premium paid for the insurance policy designed specifically for such cases. The deduction depends on the condition and seriousness of the disability of the dependent person.

If the disability of the dependent person is at least 40%, then one can claim a deduction of about Rs. 75,000 in a financial year.

If the dependent person is at least 80% disabled, then the taxpayer can claim up to Rs 1,25,000 tax deduction.

Tax saving on repayment of an education loan under Section 80E

You get tax benefit on the repayment of the interest component of the loan taken for higher education. This benefit is available under section 80E, and there is no limit on it.

A tax deduction can be claimed by whoever is making the repayment; it could be the parents or the student.

Taxpayers can claim tax deductions up to 8 financial years from the year of commencement of interest repayment of the education loan, or till repayment of the entire interest, whichever falls earlier.

For example, if you repay the education loan for 6 years from the date of repayment, then tax deduction will be available only for a period of 6 years.

You can repay your education loan after the8 year time period, but you would not be able to claim the tax deduction after the 8th year.

Tax Savings on interest earned on Savings Bank account

We all keep balance in our bank accounts and earn interest on it. All individuals and HUFs can claim a tax deduction on this interest.

This deduction can be availed under Section c80 TTA. This is for all taxpayers who are not senior citizens. Senior citizen taxpayers fall under Section80TTB.

Now let’s first see, what all sources are considered for interest earned:-

    1. Bank Savings Account
    2. Post office Savings Account
    3. Savings account of Cooperative Societies

Who are into banking business You should keep this in mind that interest on FDs, RDs or other term deposits cannot be claimed for deduction under this section.

The maximum deduction limit under this section is Rs. 10,000. This means you can claim a deduction on the interest earned up to Rs 10,000 from your savings bank account.

If you have many savings accounts then also you can not claim deduction beyond Rs.10,000 interest. The interest more than this amount will be considered as income from others source, and tax will be levied.

For example, Ananth has 3 savings bank accounts. He earned interest of Rs.6,000, Rs.8000 andRs.12,000. The total income from interest is Rs.26,000. But he can claim only Rs.10,000 for tax deduction under Section 80TTA.

This means that the remaining Rs.16,000 will be treated as income from other sources and will be included in taxable income.

Section 80TTB This section came into being on 1st April 2018. This was launched for the benefit of senior citizens who usually use the interest from their savings bank account and deposits as their income.

Under this section, one can claim up to Rs.50,000 as a tax deduction. With this, we come to the end of our video.

Now that you know these 5 lesser-known ways to save taxes go ahead and utilize whatever is applicable to you.

4 Ways to Easily Process Health Insurance Claim?

Health insurance claim

A recent Economic Times online survey shows that almost 60% of the people who filed claims were dissatisfied with their experience.

Health insurance claim
Health insurance claim

So in this article, I decided to look at health insurance claims in greater depth, focusing on the areas where maximum claim related conflicts occur and what you can do to extract the maximum value from your policy during claims and come out of the experience truly satisfied.

One of the biggest reasons for dissatisfaction with claims is a lack of awareness of the policy terms and conditions.

It can’t be stressed enough that every policyholder should read one’s policy document as soon as you receive it. If any terms and conditions are not clear, you should call us up your insurer to understand it better.

Also Check How To Buy Best Health Insurance

Top 4 Things To Be Careful with Health Insurance Claim

Let’s understand the top conditions that you have to be careful of :–


Most health insurance policies require the patient to be admitted for a minimum of 24 hours or more to avail of the benefits. This is a firm rule but excludes a few daycare procedures, which will be mentioned in your policy document. So if you were to go to your hospital fora tetanus shot, for example – you won’t be able to file a claim on that basis.


Your policy will have limits of certain procedures like the maximum price of the room that you can avail of. Now you might want to go for a higher-priced room, and you’ll assume that you can pay the difference between the actual rent of the room and the allowable limit. Pls, don’t do that.

Contact your insurance company before you do something like this because insurers often treat room up-gradation as a partially payable claim. In other words, never decide to alter the terms of your insurance contract unilaterally.


The third area, you need to pay attention to your waiting period on specific diseases. The waiting period is a sort of a hibernation period during which any claims made will not be admissible. A good number of consumers are unaware that claims for certain conditions are inadmissible for up to two years.

While these are a handful of conditions but it includes popular ones like tonsils, hernia, cataract, etc. A list of these medical conditions will be available in your policy wordings.

And finally, there is a waiting period on pre-existing conditions where there is a wait of 3 to 4 years.

This is another clause that several policyholders are not aware of because they did not read the policy document and leads to dissatisfaction when they apply for claims within the waiting period for pre-existing ailments.

A common problem related to this is that consumers don’t state their pre-existing condition while taking the policy.

This generally happens when consumers allow agents to fill the proposal form on their behalf or when they take the application process very light, and omit these details accidentally or on purpose.

This is a tough situation for the policyholder and the insurer, but because every insurance contract is agreed on the basis of good faith – there is every probability that the claim will not be admissible in case the declaration made by the policyholder is false or partial.


The fourth area and the last of the key clauses that have a significant impact of the claims are limiting conditions like co-payments, sub-limits, and exclusions. Co-payments are where you will pay part of the claim, and the insurer will pay part of the claim.

If you have ever made a car insurance claim without having zero depreciation on your car insurance policy, you would have noticed that you had to pay like 30-35% of the total bill to the workshop, and the insurance company paid the rest.

Similarly, co-payment may be triggered in your health insurance contract in some situations, which is why you should read the policy document carefully once you receive it.

The same is true for sub-limits, which by definition, mean that the insurance contract has a capping on how much is payable for a particular illness.

I have commonly seen sub-limits used for procedures like cataract, total knee cap replacement, and kidney dialysis.

These, too, will be in your policy document and will go something like Rs. 20,000 per eye for cataract removal. And finally, the exclusions.

This is one part that I can’t stress enough on and becomes the cause of a lot of hardship.

Most health insurance policies don’t cover maternity and childbirth, yet a huge number of claims are lodged toward these due to a lack of awareness of policy exclusions.

Other exclusions in the policy include participation in adventurous activities, abuse of intoxicants like alcohol, mental disorder-related ailments, etc.

There are some smaller payments which are generally not included payable. Again, most policyholders assume that these expenses are claimable, but that is not the case.

Some expenses which get omitted in the payable claim include registration & discharge charges, cost of hearing aid, any toiletries, donor screening charges, etc.

Understanding co-payments, sub-limits, and exclusions is a must to ensure you are claiming the right procedures as contracted under your health insurance contract.

The secret to a happy claims experience is to have a clear understanding of what is claimable and what is not under the terms of your policy, most of which are available in the policy wordings.

This includes inclusions, exclusions, waiting periods, sub-limits, etc. If you are thorough in your research, you wouldn’t have to worry about claim rejection.

And when you know what is in your policy, it also gives you the necessary knowledge to fight for any unjust calls made by the insurer’s claims team.

And if you have any doubts about anything in your policy, feel free to comment in the comments section below or call your insurance company for better clarification.

If you liked this article, share it with your friends, and don’t forget to check out the health insurance section on the ETMONEY app for more information on everything we have discussed in this article. Thank you for reading this article.